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A seminar report on

 

Ferrocement :
An advance study through a model
and different case studies
 

 

 

 

 


by:

Jinesh K. Mehta

(semester- V)

 

Faculty Advisors:

Prof. S. S. Trivedi

Mr. R. P. Vasani


Mrs. P. R. Patel

NIRMA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

AHMEDABAD

 

 

Date of presentation: 05/08/2000  

 

 

Index

Topics                                                         page no.

 

 

       Ferrocement: Introduction                                                  2

 

       Materials used for Ferrocement                                          3

 

       Construction procedure: with an example of chabutara

   Objects of making chabutara                                     4

   Concrete column specification                                       4

   Mix design for column                                                    5

   Batching, mixing, placing, finishing & curing                 6

   Ferrocement bases specifications                                 7

   Sizing and cutting of mesh                                              7

   Placing and tiding of mesh                                              8

   Mortar preparation, application and finishing        8

   Painting                                                                           9

 

       Costing of chabutara                                                      9

 

       Different constructions with special features                     10

Ferrocement boat construction                                           11

Ferrocement  coracle & water tank                                    12

Ferrocement roofs                                                               13

Ferrocement houses                                                            14

 

       Conclusion                                                                          14

       References                                                                         

Books                                                                                  14

Web-sites                                                                            14

International Network to Promote Ferrocement Technology        15

Ferrocement: Introduction

(Ferrous products + cement)

 

Definition:

 

Ferrocement is a highly versatile form of reinforced concrete, constructed of hydraulic cement mortar   reinforced with closely spaced layers of continuous and relatively small diameter mesh. The mesh may be made of a metallic or other suitable material.

 

Understanding ferrocement

 

Ferrocement is a type of concrete, primarily differs from conventional reinforced or prestressed concrete by the manner in which the reinforcing elements are dispersed and arranged.

 

It is the kind of material where the filler material, usually brittle in nature, called matrix is reinforced with fibers dispersed throughout the composite resulting in better structural performances than that of individual one.

 

Thus it is a versatile form of a composite material made of cement mortar and layers of wire mesh or similar small diameter mesh closely bound together to create a stiff structural form. This material which is special from reinforced concrete, exhibits a behavior so different from conventional reinforced concrete in performance, strength and potential application that it must be classed as a separate material.

 

 

Advantages of ferrocement construction over R.C.C. construction

 

        It is highly versatile and can be formed into almost any shape for a wide range of uses

        Advantageous in spatial structures, has relatively better mechanical properties and durability than R.C.C. within certain loading limits

        Thin elements and light structures, reduction in self weight

        Its simple techniques require a minimum of skilled labor

        Reduction in expensive form work so economy & speed can be achieved

        Only a few simple hand tools are needed to build any structures

        Structures are strong and have good impact resistance.

        Structures are highly waterproof

        Higher strength to weight ratio than R.C.C

        20% savings on materials and cost

        Suitability for pre-casting

        Flexibility in cutting, drilling and jointing

        Very appropriate for developing countries; labor intensive

 

Disadvantages:

 

        ferrocement for smaller structures is its high density (2600 kg/m3), however for larger structures it is not a big problem.

        The large amount of labor required for ferrocement constructions

Materials used for Ferrocement

 

1.       Reinforcing  mesh :

 

1 to 8% of the total structural volume. Placed throughout the structure. No. of layers, thickness and spacing are decided according to strength requirement.

 

Table -1

COMMON TYPES OF METALLIC MESH FOR REINFORCEMENT

           

MESH TYPE               THICKNESS              SPACING                   SP. SURFACE

                                                    MM                            MM                           MM2/MM3

 

Hexagonal wire mesh                   0.5-1.5                        10-25                               0.275

(chicken mesh)

Squre welded mesh                    1.0-2.5                         10-50                               0.248

Expanded metal mesh                 2.0-3.0                         20-50                               0.245

(diamond mesh)           

Woven mesh                              1.0-1.5                         10-25                               0.255

Watson mesh                              1.0-2.0                         10-20                               0.260

 

2.     Skeleton steel:

        Thickness varies from 6-20mm according to loading condition

        Generally mild steel or Fe 415 or Fe 500 bars are used

        Spacing 7.5cm to 12m

 

3.     Cement:

        Ordinary portland cement

        Cement: Sand should be 1:1.5 to 1:2.5

        W/C ratio should be 0.4 to 0.6

 

4.     Sand:

        confirming to zone-I or Zone-II

        free from impurities

 

5.     Water:

        Free from salts and organic impurities

        Minimum to achieve desired workability

 

Standards for ferrocement:

 

Min cover-                               2.0 mm

Max cover-                              5.0 mm

Min thickness of member-         12.5 mm for impermeable

Steel content-                           125-250 kg/m3  

 

Construction procedure: with an example of chabutara

 

Objects of making chabutara :

 

To get feel of ferrocement & R.C.C.:

The total understanding of any material you can achieve only when you work with it. So I have decided to prepare a chabutara in which I have constructed a R.C.C. pillar and on that 4 ferrocement bases are supported.  Total work in ferrocement is @ 4.0 m2 and in R.C.C. is 9000 cm3.

 

To satisfy need

This was essential because due to constant harassment of cats the birds can not come to eat. So  to give the birds a better place to eat.

 

To use waste materials

I was having old wire meshes from my old shop. They were woven meshes of 2mm diameter and 10mm spacing and chicken mesh. So I found that it was quite suitable to use for ferrocement structure.

 

Step by step Construction procedure of chbutara :

 

CONCRETE COLUMN

 

Specifications:

 

Dimensions:

Height (above G.L.): 2000 mm             height (below G.L.) : 360 mm

Diameter: 75 mm

For footing a circular pit of 360 * 75 mm excavated and by applying rich concrete layer of 40 mm a solid base was made. Then reinforcement bars were placed aligned and then hole pit is filled up by rich cement mortar and a cement seal of 20 mm was provided on the top most portion of the footing.

 

Reinforcement steel:

Re-bars: 3- 8 mm dia. Fe 415 bars

Lateral ties: 3mm dia steel wire @ 100 mm c/c.

 

Concrete : M30  (mix design according to I.S. method)

Sand : zone II

Aggregates: crushed angular and washed(free from dust)

 

Approx. load carrying capacity: 25KN (250 Kg)

Self wt. Of column: 9.8KN (98 Kg)

Net load bearing capacity: 152 Kg

 

Mix design (According to IS method)

Reference: hand book on concrete mixes ( SP 23: 1982)

 

a)       Design stipulations

      characteristic concrete strength required in field at 28- days                   30 N/mm2

      maximum size of aggregate                                                                    20 mm( angular)

      degree of workability                                                                            0.8 compacting factor

      degree of quality control                                                                        good

      type of exposure                                                                                   mild

 

b)      Test data for materials

 

      cement: O.P.C. ; Sidhee 53 Grade; satisfying the requirements of IS : 269 1976

      specific gravity of cement:                                                                     3.15

      specific gravity of coarse aggregate                                                       2.60

      specific gravity of fine aggregate                                                            2.60

      saturated surface dry condition of aggregates

      sieve analysis : sand conforming to zone-II

 

c)      Target mean strength of concrete

for a tolerance factor of 1.65 and using table 39,

fck = 30 + 6*1.65= 39.9 Mpa

 

d)      Selection of water cement ratio

from fig 47, W/C ration required for 39.9 Mpa is 0.43. (E- curve for 53 Mpa)

this is lower than the max. value of 0.65 prescribed for mild exposure (see table 23)

 

e)      Selection of water and sand content

from table 42, for 20 mm M.S.A. and sand conforming to zone II

water content / m3 of  concrete = 186 Kg

sand content as percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume = 35%

 

change in condition                                                       adjustment required

(see table 44)                                                               water content    % sand in total aggregate

 

for decrease in W/C ratio by                                         0                      0.17/0.05= 3.4%

(0.6-0.43) = 0.17

 

            no change in C.F.                                                         0                      0

 

       final water content w= 186 Kg/m3

       final sand content p = 35    - 3.4 = 31.6%

 

f)       Determination of cement content

water-cement ratio =0.43

water                      = 186 Kg

cement                   = 186/0.5 = 372 Kg

this cement content is adequate for mild exposure condition (see table 23)

 

g)      Determination of coarse and fine aggregate content

 

from table 41, for M.S.A. 20 mm , the amount of entrapped air = 2%.

Taking this in to account and applying eq. 2 and 3

Eq. 2 -- 0.98 = [ 186 + 372/3.15 + 1/ 0.316* fa/2.6]* 1/1000=> fa= 555.32 Kg

Eq. 3 -- 0.98 = [ 186 + 372/3.15 + 1/ 0.684* Ca/2.6]* 1/1000=> Ca= 1202.03 Kg

 

The mix proportion then becomes:

Water         cement             fine aggregate               coarse aggregate

186 lit.        372 Kg                        555 Kg                                    1202 Kg

0.43           1                      1.5                               3.23

the mix is 0.43 : 1.0 : 1.5 : 3.23

 

Formwork

 

    PVC pipes of  75mm diameter were used as formwork. The pipe of different lengths(0.2m-0.6m) was used and concreting was done in five stages, after each stage two lateral bars are placed horizontally for support of ferrocement base. Thus whole 2m height was achieved.(see Photo)

    The reinforcement bars were tied up with stirrups at 100 mm c/c. Burnt oil was applied on the inner side of the pipe thoroughly such that no concrete stick with the pipe.

 

Weigh batching

 

      Weigh batching was done for the whole concreting process. There might be little bit error due to use of simple weighing balance as a weigh batcher.

      A proper attempt was made to achieve SSD condition before weigh batching was done.

 

Mixing

 

      Hand mixing was done for at least 3.0 min for each batching.

      Proper mixing was achieved in the case of hand mixing also because total quantity for each batching was not more than 2500 cm3 i.e. 5.5 Kg in any stage.

 

Placing

 

      Concrete placing was done with the hands by wearing the gloves.

      To achieve better compaction 20 blows of tamping rod were applied 3 times in each stage.

 

Finishing and curing

 

      The formwork pipes are removed after 24 hours of placing. Then the potholes, occurred due to very much confined structure or improper hand compaction and also at the joints of 4 stages at lateral bars, were filled with rich mortar.

      Curing was done for 14 days by simple application of water.

 

Photo graph on the left page shows removal of formwork pipe after last stage of concreting

FERROCEMENT BASES

 

Specifications:

 

Skeleton steel:

      8 mm diameter Fe 415 bars (for topmost base) and 6 mm diameter Fe 250 bars( for 2nd , 3rd and 4th base), were provided as skeleton steel. These were the lateral bars inserted in the column during concreting.

      At each base two bars were provided length of  which are corresponding to diameter of that base.

 

Reinforcing mesh (wire mesh):

      Two types of meshes were available and each stage single layer of wire mesh was provided because here impermeability was not a desired criterion. Then also from four bases in two base complete permeability is achieved at 9 mm thickness.

      One was woven mesh of 2 mm thick and 10 mm spacing total  available size of which was 1.2 m * 2.5 m.

      The other was chicken mesh of 1mm thick and 5 mm spacing and size available was 1 m * 2 m.

 

Mortar

Cement : sand = 1 : 1.5

Cement : Sidhee 53 Grade

Sand : ZoneII

 

Thus there are total four bases made up of ferrocement for birds to alight and eat food. The all four bases are basically circular and of different diameter and with different shapes as explained below.

 

NO.                             DIAMETER                             SHAPE                                    WIRE MESH

The topmost base         1200 mm                                  Chinese roof shape                   Woven mesh

The second base           600 mm                                    Circular plate type                    Woven mesh   

The third base               500 mm                                    Circular plate type                    Woven mesh

The fourth base 800 mm                                    Circular bowl type                    Chicken mesh

The top three bases are provided with exposed, sharp, and upward projected wire mesh to stop the cats to climb on it.

 

Sizing and Cutting of mesh

 

      The sizes of the base were decided considering convince of birds, aesthetics and availability of material. Markings were done in such a way that optimum utilization of available roll would be achieved.

      Cutting  was the most tedious task. To cut all the wire mesh in circular shape only chisel and hammer were used and no other mechanical instrument, so it became a tedious job.

 

The photograph on the left page shows cutting of mesh with the help of chisel and hammer.

 

      To make the basic circular shape for all four bases the wire meshes were cut in D- shapes. In each D-shape a half-circular portion was cut to mesh it properly with column.

 

The second photograph on the left page shows cut wire mesh for three bases.

 

Placing and tiding of mesh

 

      The wire mesh in this case were placed only above the lateral bars, while generally at the both the side of skeleton steel wire mesh are provided to achieve better impermeability and strength.

      As shown in the photograph the two Ds were placed at each stage in such a way that a full circular shapes were achieved and inner sides properly flush with column.

      Then the wire meshes were tied with lateral bars with the help of binding wire at @ 80 mm c/c spacing

      The binding wire used was 1.5 mm dia. wire.

 

The photograph on the left side shows tiding of wire mesh at stage 2.

 

 

Mortar preparation

 

      As no. of supports were relatively less at each stage better strength of the ferrocement base was required and so the cement : sand proportion is 1: 1.5 was maintained.

      Water cement ratio was 0.5.

      Green color pigments were added during preparation of mortar to achieve the base color of green.

      Thorough mixing of cement, sand and color were done after it water was added and then hand mixing was done for three minutes.

 

 

Mortar application

 

      The wire meshes were washed and made clean before application of mortar. Plastering was done with the help of hand by wearing gloves.

      As shown in photograph mortar was taken in hand and then pressed on mesh from both the side if possible, and by the similar way it was applied on all four bases.

      For 2-3 layers of mesh mortar should be applied from both the sides and that may be done with one-stage technique, two-stage technique or sectional plastering.

 

Photograph on the left side shows application of mortar on stage 2.

 

 

Finishing and curing

 

      For this type of structures there is no need of providing finishing layer because high smoothness is not required.

      Small holes were filled with rich mortar before setting of in place mortar.

      Here in this structure mortar was applied from single side only and so most of the skeleton steel remain out of mortar. So care should be taken to see that proper mortar should be applied from lower side at joints of wire mesh and skeleton steel.

      Curing was done for 14 days by normal moist curing method.

 

 

 

Painting

 

      Here due to application of mortar from single side only most of the portion of the skeleton steel remained exposed, so painting of that bars with red oxide was essential to protect from adverse effect of environment.

      Also the binding wires were painted properly which were remained exposed.

      Here ferrocement bases were of green color due to adding of pigment in cement so there was no need of painting ferrocement bases, but the outer periphery of them were put exposed and projected upwards, these sharp ends were also painted with red oxide.

      Concrete column was also painted with red oxide to give a tree stem color, a try was made to give the structure look of  a tree and only due to this reason green color was added in to the cement.

 

Photograph on the left page shows painting of exposed bars, periphery of base and column.

 

 

Costing of chabutara

 

Costing of  column

Steel bars (8mm-dia)    3 * 8ft              2.84kg             40Rs.

Cement  (siddhi 53)                              8.0 kg              32Rs.

Sand  (zone- III)                                   10 kg                5Rs.

Grit     (up to 12.5 mm)             25 kg               20Rs.

Pipes & oil charges                                                       50Rs.

Labor                                                                           priceless

 

Toatal                                                                         147Rs. (excluding labor)

 

Costing  for four bases of ferrocement:

Woven wire mesh                     8 * 3 ft             240Rs.

Labor for cutting                                                 40Rs.

Chicken mesh                           5 * 3 ft             120Rs.

Steel bars (6 mm dia)                30 ft                  30 Rs. (2.15 kg)

Cement                                    25 kg               100Rs.

Sand                                        40 kg                 20Rs.

Labor                                                               priceless

 

Toatal                                                             550Rs. (excluding labor)

 

        If all three base are made of conc. Then it  will cost 1200 Rs. Min.

        And weight increases 5 times of present weight.

 

Different applications of ferrocement with

special features

 

 

Ferrocement's features such as resistance to fracture, fatigue and impact, high tensile resistance and easy availability of material make it useful in a wide range of applications such as:

 

Aqueducts                                                                    buildings                      

boats                                                                            concrete road repair    

bridge decks                                                                 factory-built homes                  

food and water storage containers                                 retaining walls  

irrigation structures                                                        sculptures                                            

traffic- signboards                                                         bus shelters

 

 

 

In its final cured stage, ferrocement is somewhat flexible and can be bent slightly without developing cracks. Ferrocement can be used in such compound-curved structures as

 

domes                                     

roofs                                                               

ship hulls  

 

 

 

Compound curvature adds to the strength, stiffness, and impact resistance of these structures, which can be built over a minimum of internal forms. The examples of these type of structures can also be constructed very satisfactorily with thin-walled ferrocement are:

 

Round or conical tanks

silos                                                                 

pontoons

 

 

 

Other areas where ferrocement is being tried to a limited scale in India are:

 

1.      Large span roofs (including shells and folded plates)

2.      Cattle feeders, water troughs and vats for fish ensilage

3.      Grain and copra drier

4.      Pipes and irrigation conduits

5.      Wall panelling

6.      Timber treatment enclosures

7.      Architectural panels and finishes

8.      Components of furniture

 

 

 

 

ferrocement  boats                        

 

ferrocement boats have by now been built in almost every Asian country. In India it is in still developing stage but in countries like china ferrocement boats have been introduced on a large scale.

 

The construction of a conventional ferrocement boat can be subdivided into the following phases:

1.      Drawing of the frames in full size

2.      Bending and welding of frames

3.      Setting up of frames

4.      Applying rods and mesh

5.      Plastering and curing

 

Case study:1(Korea)

 

Here one analysis is given for a 25 gross tons 18m coastal fishing boat (Korea) designed in may 1969 by  a local concrete pile manufacturer, who incidentally had never built a boat not dealt with ferrocement before. So one can understand it is very easy to adopt this material with some care.

Here in table-1 comparison of three material is shown for the this boat, the money is estimated according to current rates of year 2000.

 

Table-2

Materials

Ferrocement       Rs.

Wood                            Rs.

Steel                 Rs.

Material cost

Steel                60,850

Imp. Wood 40 m3     2,33,350

Steel              3,26,650

                       

Mesh            1,78,050

Doms wood 9m3         45,000      

Welding rod

 

Mortar              16,300

 

Painting etc.

 

Others              27,750

Others                         89,500

 

Labor

Man-day (616)      100

(750)                                180

(550)                     180

Sub-total

                     3,44,500

                                 5,02,850 

                     5,95,650

Overhead 17%

                        58,573

                                    85,485

                     1,01,260           

Total

                     4,03,123 

                                 5,88,335

                     6,96,910

Price/G/T

                        16,125

                                    23,533

                        27,876

 

 

Case study:2(Singapore)

 

Previously ferrocement has been used mainly as a construction material for boats longer than 10m length because the minimum thickness which could be achieved when skeletal steel is used as a reinforcement is about 19cm (3/4in). when ferrocement of this thickness is used for boats of smaller length, it results in very much heavier boat than when using any other construction materials.

 

The problem was resolved by using a ferrocement material that has only wire mesh as reinforcement, without skeletal steel, but having the required strength. This was possible with this type of ferrocement constructed with a thickness of 13 cm (1/2in) which led to the design of 23ft boat comparable in weight when constructed with timber. The ferrocement used in this construction is reinforced by 9mm * 9mm in woven wire mesh of 0.8-1.0 mm dia. The cement, sand and water ratio is 1:1.5:0.45

 

ferrocement coracle

 

 

This is a common type of county craft made of split bamboo covered with buffalo skin, used by local people to cross rivers for fishing in rivers and reservoirs. An attempt was made to fabricate the same in ferrocement. This attracted much attention and now it is proposed to build a few more such craft for use in the fisheries Department, Madras. The main intention is to popularize them among the local people.

 

 

ferrocement water tank

 

Impermeability is an important characteristic of ferrocement in its use for water retention.

 

India is giving serious attention towards evolving convenient designs of ferrocement water tank of capacities ranging from 200 to 5,000 gallons. Factory produced tanks can be designed for conventional handling with simple equipment.

 

 

Case study 1(Singapore)

 

The analysis of the cylindrical ferrocement water tank was carried out in two parts by linear elastic theory. The first part dealt with the cylindrical shell wall an the second part with the base plate. The total solution for the entire tank was obtained by imposing appropriate boundary condition at the junction of the base plate and wall.

 

Several important factors were considered before a decision was made on the dimensions  and amount of reinforcement required for a prototype water tank. Then a tank 8-ft in dia and 8.5-ft in height was selected. The wall and base thickness adopted were 1.25 in. and 2.25 in. respectively. From the analysis it was found that the max. hoop stress governs the design of the cylinder which was proportioned with a safety factor against the development of cracks. In this design the estimated cracking stress and max. hoop stress are 335psi and 126psi respectively.

 

The cement :sand :water ratio was 1:1.5:0.4 used for the mortar. The admixtures accelerators are also used. For the skeletal steel 6in * 6in BRC weld mesh of 0.2 in. in diameter was used to form the cylinder and base plate, rigid enough to carry the weight of the reinforcement and wet mortar. Wire mesh used was 9mm * 9mm  woven wire mesh of 0.8-1.0 mm dia. Three layers of wire mesh, two layers of BRC weld mesh and 3/8 in. mild steel bars were used for the base plate and for the cylindrical walls. Particular care was taken at the junction between the cylindrical wall and base plate by weaving the vertical wire mesh through the reinforcement of the base for continuity.

 

The tank was filled with water and observed for more than 3 months and there was no leakage even without any waterproofing coating. Cost comparison was made and it was found that ferrocement water tank is cheaper by about 30 % in comparison with steel tank of the same capacity based on local cost.

 

 

 

ferrocement roofs

 

case study :1(Philippines)

 

A prototype 3-bedroom residence with carport, whose shell is made up of ferrocement was built in lligan city an industrial center, Philippines. The ferrocement  shell consists of a roofing system complemented by exterior wall panels. The shell normally accounts for the major cost of any dwelling structure. Although executed in ferrocement the shell turned out to be comparatively cheaper than a similar dwelling using the conventional corrugated GI or asbestos sheets for roofing supported by wooden framing complete with ceiling and enclosed by and exterior 6 hollow block wall.

 

What made the use of ferrocement more economical than that of a conventional materials was the application of the following.

1.       Techniques of modular coordination with the use of standardized building components to allow mass fabrication and easier/faster construction method.

2.       Design of a structural configuration which yields a stiff roofing system and framed thin-shell section of exterior wall panels, yet is functional in shape and pleasing, although the roof is revolutionary in appearance.

3.       Formulation of mortar mixture that is impermeable without the use of expensive additives but still adopts proper curing methods.

 

The mix proportion of the mortar used in the module is 1:2 cement: sand. From 0.4-0.6 parts of water is added to get a workable mix. It takes about 1cu.ft of cement to cast one roof module.The roof surface of the module is covered by sack and continuously cured for seven days. Then the column drain hole is plugged to allow ponding of water for some time, to test for possible leaks.

The reinforcement assembly of the roof module is shop fabricated and installed in place on the forms at site. The main steel are welded to each other and the galvanized wires are meshed by hand in a weaving loom-like space pattern, conforming with the configuration of the finished roof module. Five roof modules can be cast in six working days by a crew of eight men including a foreman.

 

The light weight precast panels measures 0.825 * 2.10 meters. Its overall thickness is 0.025 meters, and it is bound on its periphery with stiffening ribs whose section is 0.05 by 0.1 m. it is reinforced with 1/4th in. steel bars and GI wires, adequately placed and made to protrude for joining provision with adjacent panels. The casting forms are made such that during manufacture open spaces for windows can be obtained or their overall dimensions can be altered, if used for perimeter fencing panels of the lot or septic vault sidings.

 

After all precast columns have been erected and joined to the in-situ footing, the collapsible roof module form supported by movable scaffolding is installed in a one column unit. The pre-assembled steel and wire mesh reinforcements are properly positioned on the aligned module form and then the ferrocement roof is cast in place. The clearance between monopods eventually become sealed ferrocement joints through which electrical conduits pass.

 

Ferrocement secodary roof slab:

 

Case study 2: (Singapore)

In many high rise building in singapore, a secondary roof is provieded for thermal insulation of flats in the top floor. The use of ferrocement slabs is investigated as a substitute.

The slab is 3*3 ft. and 1-in. thick, selected in consideration of weight in regard of handling problem and economical use of the wire mesh. The final design consists of two layers of 0.5* 0.5in. wire mesh with 0.0639 in. dia. And one layer of 6*6 in. BRC weld mesh with 0.125 dia. The preliminary observation shows that the ferrocement slab is satisfactory in terms of crack resistance and economy. The strength is much more then required.

Construction of house

 

The fig on the left hand side shows a prototype ferrocement house which contains ferrocement roofs, lintels, cornice, door panels, chair & table etc.

 

 

Conclusion

 

Thus ferrocement being a highly versatile form of composite material made up of cement mortar and layers of wire mesh having large no. of application. Also it is a boon for countries like India where large no. of manpower is easily available. So different ferrocement products can replace easily conventional products by achieving economy as well as durability. Also up to 20% addition of fly ash in ferrocement improves its properties and so it is also environment friendly. Thus we engineers should welcome this type of material and try to make maximum use of it. With the help of ferrocement very high strength structure can also be constructed but for that proper design of reinforcement  should be done.

 

References:

 

Books                                                                                               Source

 

1.      Ferrocement, versatile construction                                                              CEPT library

Material, its increasing use in Asia                                                               (691.31 PAM 09306)

 

Papers refered are:

Ferrocement reseach and development in tamil nadu, india(coracle)                  

Ferrocement roofing research in the philippines (house)                         

Ferrocement developments and applications in india                                                     

Ferrocement research and development at university of singapore                     

 

2.      The potentials of ferrocement and related                                        CEPT library

Materials for rural Indonesia.                                                           (691.31 PAM/PHR 9305)

 

Some of the Web sites visited:

 

         DETAILED CONTENT
...INTRODUCTION TO FERROCEMENT Ferrocement: Definition and Historical...
...Definition / Applications of Ferrocement - Marine - Terrestrial - Repair...
http://www.technopress3000.com/author.html [More results from www.technopress3000.com]

 

         Re: GAS-L: ferrocement gasifier info
...articles and publications on ferrocement construction of >...
...> "A manual on the construction of ferrocement gasifier". >...
http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/gasification-list-archive/msg02789.html [More results from solstice.crest.org]

 

         Singapore Concrete Institute
...INSTITUTE Concrete Encyclopaedia Ferrocement What Is Ferrocement?...
...from IFIC, AIT Applications of Ferrocement Various Applications in Public...
http://www.inetconsultancy.com/SCI/m00600.html

 

         Building Technologies - Sustainable Livelihoods and DA
...Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles Ferrocement Roofing Technology Concrete...
...of India. Certificate No. 95/1 Ferrocement Roofing Technology The...
http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/devalt/livelihoods/buildingtechnologies.htm

 

         Library Listing
...Technique C1.1 - Boat Building; Ferrocement C1.5 - Boat Building; Motor...
...1946 10227 Boat Building; GRP Ferrocement C11 PLASTIC BOAT BUILDING...
http://www.cruising.org.uk/librarylisting/listingc1_1.7.htm

 

         Fall 1999
...Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Thin Sheet Products Ferrocement and Laminated...
...for the analysis and design of ferrocement and points out its particular...
http://www.aci-int.net/ads/fallpromo1999.htm

 

         Understanding Technology Series
...#64 UNDERSTANDING FERROCEMENT CONSTRUCTION By J.P. Hartog...
...vita@vita.org Understanding Ferrocement Construction ISBN:...
http://idh.vita.org/pubs/docs/ufc.html

 

         FerroCement News Group
...discussion of ferrocement technology for building construction....
...on Ferrocement (ACI 549R-93) o Guide for the Design, Construction,...
http://www.ferrocement.net/ [More results from www.ferrocement.net]

 

         Ferrocement Applications
...user; The skills for ferrocement construction are quickly...
...developing countries. Ferrocement construction does not need heavy...
http://www.wcnet.org/~jkrochma/page2.html [More results from www.wcnet.org]

 

International Network to Promote Ferrocement Technology

 

        The International Ferrocement Information Centre (IFIC) at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) was established in 1976 to ensure the transfer of ferrocement technology.

 

 

        A Ferrocement Information Network (FIN) was established in 1985 to facilitate and accelerate the flow of information among ferrocement users in developing countries.

 

 

        IFIC's efforts in promoting ferrocement technology, including providing training and providing information, have resulted in applying the technology in some 50 countries. IFIC has also established relationships with more than 200 universities in 60 countries to teach ferrocement technology. In addition, more than 100 ferrocement reference centers have been established throughout the world. 

                                                                                        

       FC news group provides all types of information about ferrocement by giving links for different books different papers presented on ferrocement.

 

 
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